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K-State Agronomy eUpdates

Department of Agronomy

Kansas State University

1712 Claflin Rd.

2004 Throckmorton PSC

Manhatan, KS 66506

785-532-6101

agronomy@ksu.edu

Extension Agronomy

First hollow stem update: March 17, 2017

Cattle should be removed from wheat pastures when the crop reaches first hollow stem (FHS). Grazing past this stage can severely affect wheat yields (for a full explanation, please refer to eUpdate article “Optimal time to remove cattle from wheat pastures: First hollow stem.”

First hollow stem update

In order to screen for FHS during this important time in the growing season, the K-State Extension Wheat and Forages crew measures FHS of 20 different commonly grown wheat varieties and experimental lines in Kansas. The varieties are in a September-sown replicated trial at the South Central Experiment Field near Hutchinson, in cooperation with Gary Cramer, Agronomist-in-Charge of the Field.

Ten stems are split open per variety per replication, for a total of 40 stems monitored per variety. The average length of hollow stem is reported for each varieties in Table 1.

Variety

Hollow stem length (cm)

 

2/17/17

2/22/17

3/3/17

3/5/17

3/19/17

3/13/17

3/16/17

1863

0.02

0.26

0.42

0.95

1.58

-

-

Bentley

0.03

0.17

0.25

0.44

0.44

0.59

0.71

Doublestop

0.02

0.16

0.20

0.51

0.59

0.77

0.99

Everest

0.04

0.23

0.38

0.83

1.30

2.20

-

Gallagher

0.05

0.33

0.58

0.97

1.53

-

-

IBA

0.03

0.31

0.38

0.72

1.01

1.57

-

KanMark

0.04

0.22

0.34

1.00

0.87

1.39

2.01

KS061193K-2

0.03

0.33

0.34

1.02

1.04

1.30

1.67

KS080448C*102

0.01

0.06

0.33

0.51

0.57

0.77

0.62

Larry

0.03

0.16

0.18

0.57

0.56

0.70

0.76

OK11D250561

0.02

0.18

0.44

0.76

0.99

1.74

-

OK12716

0.03

0.20

0.27

0.66

0.77

1.11

1.29

OK12DP22002-042

0.03

0.19

0.40

0.89

1.30

1.56

-

Ruby Lee

0.02

0.20

0.27

0.82

1.16

2.02

-

Stardust

0.02

0.34

0.53

1.01

1.13

1.57

-

SY Flint

0.03

0.30

0.46

0.96

1.12

1.48

1.58

SY Grit

0.02

0.22

0.48

1.06

1.53

-

-

SY Llano

0.01

0.38

0.60

1.39

2.67

-

-

Tatanka

0.03

0.18

0.35

0.50

0.51

0.95

1.07

Zenda

0.04

0.30

0.36

1.02

0.93

1.90

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 1. Length of hollow stem measured March. 16, 2017 of 20 wheat varieties sown mid-September 2016 at the South Central Experiment Field near Hutchinson. The critical FHS length is 1.5 cm (about a half-inch or the diameter of a dime).

1 OK11D25056 will be released as “Smith’s Gold”

 

Three varieties reached first hollow stem between March 13 and March 16 (Table 1), demonstrating how fast this stage can be reached -- within only a few days. Varieties that reached first hollow stem within the last few days include KanMark, KS061193K-2, and SY Flint. Only six varieties have not yet reached this stage, but two of them are rapidly approaching (Tatanka and OK12716). Producers growing these varieties in south central Kansas should have already removed cattle by now, unless intending to graze out the crop (please see article on wheat grazeout decision here). First hollow stem will be achieved within a few days for all of the varieties being evaluated. Thus, producers should closely monitor first hollow stem development in their wheat pastures at this time.  

Figure 1. Depiction of the first hollow stem stage or growth in wheat. Photo by Romulo Lollato, K-State Research and Extension.

 

How do these values compare to other growing seasons for Kansas?

Unfortunately, we do not have a history of first hollow stem measurements in Kansas to which we can compare these averages. Our best benchmark is the 2015-16 growing season, which was the first year of these measurements in Hutchinson. That season was also characterized by a mild winter and the wheat was approximately 2 weeks ahead of its normal growing cycle at this point. During the 2015-16 growing season, all varieties evaluated reached first hollow stem between March 5th and 9th. In the current season, only the very early varieties reached this threshold by the same day of the year. Thus, the wheat during the 2016-17 growing season seems to be slightly behind in development as compared to the previous year, but still ahead of what would be normal.

The intention of this report is to provide producers a weekly update on the progress of first hollow stem development in different wheat varieties. Producers should use this information as a guide, but it is extremely important to monitor FHS from an ungrazed portion of each individual wheat pasture to take the decision of removing cattle from wheat pastures.

 

Romulo Lollato, Wheat and Forages Specialist
lollato@ksu.edu

Gary Cramer, Agronomist-in-Charge, South Central Experiment Field
gcramer@ksu.edu

Cintia Sciarresi, Assistant Scientist
sciarresi@ksu.edu

Larissa Bonassi, Assistant Scientist

bonassi@ksu.edu

Guilherme Bavia, Assistant Scientist

bavia@ksu.edu

Jessica Lavorenti, Assistant Scientist

laral@ksu.edu