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Department of Agronomy

Kansas State University

1712 Claflin Rd.

2004 Throckmorton PSC

Manhatan, KS 66506

785-532-6101

agronomy@ksu.edu

Extension Agronomy

First hollow stem update: March 27, 2019

 

Cattle should be removed from wheat pastures when the crop reaches first hollow stem (FHS). Grazing past this stage can severely affect wheat yields (for a full explanation, please refer to the eUpdate article “Optimal time to remove cattle from wheat pastures: First hollow stem”).

First hollow stem update

In order to screen for FHS during this important time in the growing season, the K-State Extension Wheat and Forages crew measures FHS on a weekly basis in 36 different commonly grown wheat varieties in Kansas. The varieties are in a September-sown replicated trial at the South Central Experiment Field near Hutchinson.

Ten stems are split open per variety per replication (Figure 1), for a total of 40 stems monitored per variety. The average length of hollow stem is reported for each variety in Table 1.

https://webapp.agron.ksu.edu/agr_social/lib/Filemanager/userfiles/02222017/eUpdate02222017-A02-F01.gif

Figure 1. Ten main wheat stems were split open per replication per variety to estimate first hollow stem for this report, for a total of 40 stems split per variety. Photo by Romulo Lollato, K-State Research and Extension.

 

Table 1. Length of hollow stem measured March 27 of 36 wheat varieties sown mid-September 2018 at the South Central Experiment Field near Hutchinson. The critical FHS length is 1.5 cm (about a half-inch or the diameter of a dime). Varieties that already passed first hollow stem are highlighted.

Variety

Hollow stem length (cm)

 

(3/27/2019)

SY Achieve CL2

3.80

AM Eastwood

3.30

Spirit Rider

3.28

WB4303

3.25

SY Benefit

3.16

Ruby Lee

2.38

WB4792

1.96

Stardust

1.91

WB4595

1.90

Gallagher

1.87

Langin

1.80

SY Grit

1.65

Byrd

1.57

Green Hammer

1.56

Smith's Gold

1.56

TAM 204

1.54

WB4269

1.50

Zenda

1.47

EXP

1.44

Iba

1.39

Bob Dole

1.35

Tatanka

1.34

WB4515

1.25

Paradise

1.16

EXP 40-1

1.14

NE10478-1

1.10

Lonerider

1.03

Doublestop CL Plus

1.00

Bentley

0.97

Whistler

0.94

Larry

0.90

Showdown

0.88

WB-Grainfield

0.84

SY Rugged

0.83

WB4699

0.74

Joe

0.56

 

As of March 27, 2019, the varieties WB4303, SY Benefit, Spirit Rider, AM Eastwood, SY Achieve CL 2, SY Benefit, Ruby Lee, WB4792, Stardust, WB4595, Gallagher, Langin, SY Grit, Byrd, Green Hammer, Smith’s Gold, TAM 204, and WB4269 had already reached first hollow stem (Table 1), and all varieties had started to show minor stem elongation. First hollow stem is generally achieved within a few days from when the stem starts to elongate, so we advise producers to closely monitor their wheat pastures at this time.

The intention of this report is to provide producers an update on the progress of first hollow stem development in different wheat varieties. Producers should use this information as a guide, but it is extremely important to monitor FHS from an ungrazed portion of each individual wheat pasture to take the decision of removing cattle from wheat pastures.

 

Contact author:

Romulo Lollato, Wheat and Forages Specialist
lollato@ksu.edu

Co-authors:

Kavan Mark, Undergraduate hourly student

Marden Moraes, Visiting Assistant Scientist

Lohan Oliveira, Visiting Assistant Scientist

Nilo Fernandes Junior, Visiting Assistant Scientist

Caio Rapolla, Visiting Assistant Scientist

Valdir Fogaca Jr., Visiting Assistant Scientist