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Department of Agronomy

Kansas State University

1712 Claflin Rd.

2004 Throckmorton PSC

Manhatan, KS 66506

785-532-6101

agronomy@ksu.edu

Extension Agronomy

First hollow stem update: April 8, 2021

Cattle should be removed from wheat pastures when the crop reaches first hollow stem (FHS). Grazing past this stage can severely affect wheat yields (for a full explanation, please refer to the eUpdate article “Optimal time to remove cattle from wheat pastures: First hollow stem”).

First hollow stem update

In order to screen for FHS during this important time in the growing season, the K-State Extension Wheat and Forages crew measures FHS on a weekly basis in 34 different commonly grown wheat varieties in Kansas. The varieties are in a September-sown replicated trial at the South Central Experiment Field near Hutchinson. Ten stems are split open per variety per replication (Figure 1), for a total of 30 stems monitored per variety. The average length of hollow stem is reported for each variety in Table 1.

 

https://webapp.agron.ksu.edu/agr_social/lib/Filemanager/userfiles/02222017/eUpdate02222017-A02-F01.gif

Figure 1. Ten main wheat stems were split open per replication per variety to estimate first hollow stem for this report, for a total of 30 stems split per variety. Photo by Romulo Lollato, K-State Research and Extension.

 

Table 1. Length of hollow stem measured March 3, 8, 16, 22, 25, and 31, and April 5, 2021 of 34 wheat varieties sown mid-September 2020 at the South Central Experiment Field near Hutchinson. The critical FHS length is 1.5 cm (about a half-inch or the diameter of a dime). Value(s) in bold indicate varieties that have reached FHS.

 

First hollow stem

Variety

3/3/21

3/8/21

3/16/21

3/22/21

3/25/21

3/31/21

4/5/21

 

------------------------------------------ cm ------------------------------------------

10BC329-17-5

0.00

0.01

0.03

0.42

0.36

3.30

.

AP EverRock

0.00

0.00

0.46

0.98

2.10

.

.

AP Roadrunner

0.00

0.13

0.21

0.42

0.69

3.27

.

Buckhorn AX

0.01

1.16

2.76

.

.

.

.

Canvas

0.00

0.00

0.07

0.02

0.38

2.60

.

Crescent AX

0.00

0.00

0.14

0.15

0.91

4.97

.

High Country

0.00

0.01

0.03

0.69

1.27

4.47

.

KS12DH0156-88

0.00

0.00

0.02

0.12

0.43

1.10

4.16

KS13DH0041-35

0.01

0.00

0.00

0.21

0.95

1.77

.

KS Dallas

0.00

0.00

0.12

0.78

0.84

2.93

.

KS Hamilton

0.00

0.00

0.01

0.00

0.15

1.37

5.01

KS Hatchett

0.00

0.00

0.10

0.18

1.02

4.60

.

KS Silverado

0.01

0.00

0.01

0.00

0.05

1.33

4.11

KS Western Star

0.00

0.01

0.13

0.34

0.35

1.90

.

LCS Atomic AX

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.14

0.58

1.93

.

LCS Helix AX

0.00

0.00

0.06

0.30

1.23

3.33

.

LCS Julep

0.00

0.00

0.03

0.29

0.41

2.87

.

LCS Photon AX

0.00

0.00

0.34

0.68

1.96

.

.

LCS Revere

0.00

0.00

0.19

0.50

1.08

5.00

.

Long Branch

0.00

0.03

0.54

1.66

.

.

.

MS Maverick

0.00

0.00

0.12

0.31

0.39

2.47

.

NUSAKA15-3

0.00

0.03

0.19

0.46

1.22

4.27

.

OCW04S717T-6W

0.00

0.01

0.13

0.49

0.71

2.70

.

OK12912C-138407-2

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.07

0.06

1.23

3.65

OK16D101089

0.00

0.01

0.26

0.79

1.31

3.87

.

OK Corral

0.00

0.02

0.08

0.56

0.67

2.83

.

Paradise

0.00

0.01

0.02

0.51

0.40

2.83

.

Rock Star

0.00

0.00

0.04

0.24

0.17

0.87

4.18

Showdown

0.00

0.00

0.07

0.20

0.30

2.53

.

Smith's Gold

0.00

0.11

0.14

0.82

0.61

2.53

.

WB4269

0.00

0.06

0.18

0.38

0.69

2.90

.

WB4401

0.00

0.09

0.38

0.62

1.15

4.30

.

WB4699

0.00

0.03

0.03

0.08

0.13

0.73

3.67

Zenda

0.00

0.02

0.31

1.04

1.72

.

.

Variety effect

ns

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

0.88

 

All varieties evaluated in this trial had reached first hollow stem as of April 5, 2021. The latest varieties to reach it were KS12DH0156-88, KS Hamilton, KS Silverado, OK12912C-138407-2, Rock Star, and WB4699.

The intention of this report is to provide producers an update on the progress of first hollow stem development in different wheat varieties. Producers should use this information as a guide. While it is extremely important to monitor FHS from an ungrazed portion of each individual wheat pasture to take the decision of removing cattle from wheat pastures, it is very likely that at this time, growers in the region should already have removed cattle from their fields to avoid unintended yield losses due to extended grazing.

 

Contact author:

Romulo Lollato, Wheat and Forages Specialist
lollato@ksu.edu

Co-authors:

Nicolas Giordano, M.S. student

Luiz Pradella, Visiting Assistant Scientist

Brahian Dávila Díaz, Visiting Assistant Scientist

Malena Bartaburu, Visiting Assistant Scientist